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Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin/ Boeing Country of Origin: USA

Model: F-22 Raptor

Information:

 



F-22 NEXT-GENERATION AIR DOMINANCE FIGHTER

Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems, Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems, and Boeing Defense & Space Group's Military Airplanes Division are teamed to develop the F-22 as a replacement for the F-15 fighter currently in use by the U.S. Air Force.

The team was selected by the Air Force on April 23, 1991, as the winner of its Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) competition. The Air Force awarded the team an Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) contract on August 2, 1991.

As the result of a Fiscal Year '93 funding shortfall due to cost increases and a Congressional budget cut, and two additional budget cuts in FY '94 and FY '95, the F-22 EMD program schedule was rephased in early 1993 and again in mid 1994. The FY'96 budget request was reduced by the Department of Defense, which necessitated a third rephase of the F-22 program.

BACKGROUND

The F-22 Team was formed in 1986, when Lockheed, Boeing, and General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems) joined forces for the ATF competition. The teaming arrangement, still in place, has allowed unprecedented industry cost sharing and takes advantage of the companies' strengths in advanced technology application, production capability, and systems integration.

Prior to its selection as the winner of the ATF competition, the F-22 team conducted a 54-month demonstration/validation program involving the design, construction, and flight testing of two YF-22 prototype aircraft.

Two prototype engine designs, the Pratt & Whitney YF119 and General Electric YF120, were developed and tested in the program. The Pratt & Whitney F119 engine was selected by the Air Force to power the F-22. Each F-22 will have two engines.

The demonstration/validation program, in which all three airframe companies shared work and program costs equally, was completed in December 1990.

Following the current EMD phase (formerly called full-scale development or FSD), which will last until 2002, the Air Force plans to procure 438 production F-22s.

First flight of an EMD aircraft occurred on September 7, 1997. Current plans call for the Air Force's Air Combat Command to achieve initial operational capability with the F-22 in late 2004.

Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems (LMAS) serves as the prime contractor on the F-22 program and a majority of work (35 percent) in the EMD and production phases will take place at the company's facility in Marietta, Ga. (Air Force Plant 6). The remaining two-thirds of the work is being performed at both Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems (LMTAS) facility in Fort Worth, Tex. (Air Force Plant 4) and at Boeing's plant in Seattle, Wash.

During the demonstration/validation program, work was performed at Lockheed's facility in Burbank, Calif., at General Dynamics, and at Boeing. The YF-22 prototypes were assembled at Lockheed's Palmdale, Calif., facility and made their maiden flights from there. Lockheed's program management and aircraft assembly operations were transferred to its Marietta, Ga., facility in 1991.

NEED

The F-22 is being developed to counter the increasing sophistication and threat of hostile air forces and integrated air defense systems in use around the world. This fighter will provide air dominance and a precision ground attack capability for U.S. forces well into the 21st century. Its predecessor, the F-15, entered the Air Force inventory in 1975.

Air and ground threats that the F-15 will no longer be able to counter will be defeated by the lethal and survivable F-22, with its balance of increased speed and range, enhanced offensive and defensive avionics, and reduced observability. The F-22's design also emphasizes reliability and maintainability of systems.

THREAT

The F-22 will be capable of flying and fighting against the most advanced integrated radar networks and dense surface-to-air missile environments in the world -- now and in the future. A new generation of fighters is under development in several countries around the world today as well as in the former Soviet Union.

The advent of these new fighters as well as the continuing export of the latest in air defense and adversary advanced fighter technology to the Third World will place at increasing risk the United States's ability to gain and maintain air superiority, much less air dominance.

The F-22 will be needed to maintain the air dominance that was displayed by U.S. forces during the Persian Gulf war. Success of any major air-land operation--today and in the future--will depend primarily upon America's ability to detect and destroy enemy fighters, but also to attack high-value ground targets with precision weapons as well.

ENGINES

The F-22 will incorporate a new, higher thrust-to-weight engine, the Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100, which is designed for efficient supersonic operation without afterburner (called supercruise), and with increased durability over current engines.

Advanced technologies incorporated in the 35,000-pound-thrust class F119 include integrated flight-propulsion controls and two-dimensional, thrust-vectoring engine nozzles, which will give the F-22 unprecedented aircraft maneuverability.

Development of the F119 is taking place at Pratt & Whitney's West Palm Beach, Fla., facility, while production will take place at the company's factories in Middletown, Conn.

Pratt & Whitney will build 27 flightworthy engines during EMD. Each F-22 will be powered by two F119 engines.


WEAPONS

The F-22 is capable of carrying existing and planned air-to-air weapons in internal bays. These include six radar-guided AIM-120C Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAMs) in the main weapons bay (or four earlier version, longer-finned AIM-120A AMRAAMs), and two heat-seeking, short-range AIM-9M Sidewinders (one in each side weapons bay). The F-22 will also have an internal M61A2 20-mm cannon, an advanced version of the proven M61 Gatling-type gun.

In addition, the F-22 will have an inherent ground attack capability, as it can carry two 1,000-pound-class GBU-32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) internally (in place of two of the AIM-120s). The F-22 will also have provisions to carry other weapons in the future.

PROTOTYPE RISK REDUCTION

The risk involved in proceeding with the EMD program was significantly reduced by the aggressive and successful dem/val effort. The flight phase involved Company and Air Force test pilots flying both prototype YF-22s a total of 74 flights and 91.6 hours. Major achievements included supercruise, weapons employment (live AIM-9/ AIM-120 missile launches), thrust vectoring, air refueling, and high angle of attack (60 degree AoA) flight.

Another major achievement was the development, integration, and demonstration of prototype avionics hardware, architecture, and software. This effort involved 16 major subcontractors working as a team to demonstrate the F-22 avionics concept first in Boeing's Avionics Ground Prototype Laboratory, followed by airborne tests in Boeing's 757 Airborne Flying Laboratory (AFL).

These risk-reducing demonstrations validated Lockheed's approach to integrated avionics and ability to develop Ada software (800,000 lines of code). In addition, the Lockheed team completed an avionics architecture demonstration utilizing brassboard processing hardware to validate the Air Force's Pave Pillar fault tolerant, reconfigurable, design concept.

Based on extensive trade studies and near-real-time effectiveness analysis, the F-22 Team flew its design in a series of USAF/USN full mission simulations to validate overall weapon system effectiveness during the dem/val phase.

This simulation involved very high fidelity manned and unmanned airborne and surface-to-air threats in a variety of Air Force-dictated scenarios to evaluate cockpit design, control mechanization, and Pilot/Vehicle Interface. The result was a highly effective cockpit avionics suite now undergoing final development during the EMD phase.

A final major achievement in the demonstration/validation phases was the construction and testing of a full-scale pole model of the F-22 for radar cross section measurement. As in previous efforts, the F-22 team met the Air Force goals in this area.

A key goal of the program was to define the design/capability tradeoffs required to meet Air Force cost goals. This was achieved. EMD proposed designs, performance data, and cost trade-offs derived from the dem/val program are based on a balance of lethality, survivability, producibility and affordability.

TECHNOLOGIES

In addition to greater lethality and survivability, the F-22 design calls for higher reliability, maintainability, and sortie generation rates than the aircraft it will replace. The design goal for all areas is a 100 percent improvement over the F-15 weapon system.

The F-22 will provide a first-look, first-shot, first-kill capability through the use of reduced observables and advanced sensors. To decrease the reaction time of enemy threats, increased supersonic cruise, and maneuverability goals have been set. To improve operations from battle-damaged runways, the F-22 offers significantly reduced takeoff and landing distances, as compared to today's frontline fighters.

A greatly increased combat radius, using internal fuel only, will give F-22 pilots the capability to engage the enemy over his territory and support long-range air-to-ground assets such as the F-15E. The F-22 will also bring a precision ground attack capability to the battlefield.

AVIONICS

The F-22's avionics suite will feature extensive use of very high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) technology, common modules, and high-speed data buses. The avionics suite will be a highly integrated system maximizing performance allowing the pilot to concentrate on the mission, rather than on managing the sensors as in current fighters.

Technologies to be incorporated in the F-22 include a Common Integrated Processor (CIP), a central "brain" with the equivalent computing throughput of two Cray supercomputers; shared low-observable antennas; Ada software; expert systems; advanced data fusion-cockpit displays; integrated electronic warfare system (INEWS) technology; integrated communications, navigation, and identification (CNI) avionics technology; and fiber optics data transmission.

Nearly all of these elements were demonstrated during dem/val in a prototype architecture.

AIRFRAME DESIGN

The F-22 will represent a significant design evolution beyond the highly successful F-117A Nighthawk stealth fighter and it will have performance not achievable by today's front-line fighters.

Low observable, or stealth, technology has advanced to the point where conventional aerodynamic configurations can be made incorporating low observability without compromising aerodynamic performance or increasing costs significantly.

Design development risk was greatly reduced by the performance demonstrated in the dem/val program where angle of attack attitudes up to 60 degrees were flown. The validity of the low observability features of the F-22's design were confirmed by full-scale pole model testing.

The F-22 design will incorporate the latest advances in flight control technology including fiber optics, digital computers, and integrated propulsion controls for exceptional stability and handling. The operation of the two-dimensional thrust vectoring engine nozzles will be transparent to the pilot.

Thermoset and some thermoplastic composites will be used extensively for more efficient aerodynamic and structural design with reduced weight. Approximately 27 percent of the F-22 by weight will be composite materials.

Other technologies to be incorporated include high pressure, non-flammable hydraulic systems, hydraulically actuated weapon racks, a central maintenance identification and record-keeping system, and conformal sensors.

INTEGRATED PRODUCT TEAMS

The Integrated Product Team (IPT) approach is being used to develop the F-22. Under the IPT concept, each of the more than 80 permanent teams is completely responsible for its "product" (avionics, cockpit, airframe, utilities and subsystems, etc.), from engineering a part or system, controlling its cost and schedule, and insuring that it can be manufactured and supported once in use.

PROGRAM

Compared to previous fighter programs, the F-22 design is extremely mature and has unprecedented design fidelity at this stage of development.

More than 36,000 hours of wind tunnel testing have been completed in the F-22 development program so far. A total of 19,195 test hours were accumulated in the demonstration/validation phase of the program for the YF-22 prototype, and a total of 16,930 wind tunnel test hours were completed on the refined F-22 configuration during the current EMD phase.

Approximately 900 more hours will be needed to complete the F-22's wind tunnel test program, and these hours will be almost exclusively dedicated to weapons separation testing for the GBU-32 and AIM-9X weapons. This testing will be completed in 1997.

Additionally, structural component testing, analytical model testing, and evaluation of approximately 13,000 materials coupons (test specimens) have contributed to the high confidence the contractor team has in the design of the F-22 at this point.

The Preliminary Design Review (PDR), a major program milestone, was reached in the spring of 1993.

Critical Design Review (CDR), the final major milestone before assembly began, was completed in 1995. The purpose of the review was to ensure that all performance and functional requirements had been incorporated into the design of the F-22; to verify that required development tasks involving detailed design had been completed; and to confirm the program meets all necessary criteria to proceed into the next development phase, fabrication and assembly.

Fabrication of the first part for the first flyable F-22 began on December 8, 1993, at Boeing's facilities in Kent, Wash. The first part is a forward boom keelson panel made of titanium.

Assembly operations of the first flyable F-22 began on schedule at Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems in June, 1995. Boeing began assembly of the aft fuselage in October, 1995, and assembly of the wings in January, 1996. Assembly of forward fuselage began in Marietta in November, 1995.

LMTAS completed assembly of the mid fuselage in August, 1996, and, after shipment to Marietta, mate operations began. The aft fuselage is scheduled to arrive in Marietta in mid October, 1996, and the wings in November. The first two Pratt & Whitney F119 engines are scheduled to be installed in the first aircraft in December, 1996.

DIVISION OF WORK

Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems (Marietta, Ga.) is responsible for overseeing overall weapon system integration; developing and constructing the forward fuselage, including the crew station; the vertical fins and stabilators; wing and empennage leading edges, flaps, and flaperons; landing gear; and spearheading avionics architecture development and functional design, as well as displays, controls, the air data system, and apertures.

Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (Fort Worth, Tex.) is responsible for developing and constructing the mid-fuselage; armament; providing the tailored INEWS, CNI, stores management systems and inertial navigation systems; and development of the support system.

Boeing is responsible for the wings and aft fuselage; structures for installation of the engines, nozzles, and auxiliary power unit; operation of the Avionics System Integration Laboratory, and the 757 Avionics Flying Laboratory; and development of the training system.

The F-22 will be 62 feet, 1 inch long, have a wingspan of 44 feet 6 inches, and will stand 16 feet, 5 inches tall. The F-22A is a single seat aircraft.

F-22 CHRONOLOGY
(Including F119 engine dates)

1980's

November 1981
Air Force identifies need for advanced tactical fighter to replace the F-15.

May 1983
Pratt & Whitney initiates design of the PW5000, which is later designated F119.

September 1983
The Air Force awards concept definition contracts to seven aircraft manufacturers capable of producing the Advanced Tactical Fighter, or ATF. At the same time, engine demonstration/validation (dem/val) contracts are awarded to Pratt & Whitney and General Electric.

September 1985
The formal ATF request for proposal (RFP) is issued. Also, Pratt & Whitney fabricates the first YF119 engine parts.

November 1985
The Air Force issues more stringent stealth goals for the ATF designs.

May 1986
Secretary of the Air Force Edward Aldridge announces that as part of the Packard Commission guidelines, the ATF dem/val program will now include prototype aircraft, engines, and a prototype avionics demonstration.

June 1986
The Air Force awards contracts to Pratt & Whitney and General Electric for the ATF prototype engines, which will be designated YF119-PW-100 and YF120-GE-100, respectively.

August 1986
Lockheed, Boeing, and General Dynamics sign a memorandum of understanding (MOU)leading to a teaming agreement.

September 1986
Assembly begins on the first YF119-PW-100 engine. It would begin testing the following month.

October 1986
Lockheed is one of two contractors -- the other being Northrop (builder of the YF-23) -- selected to compete in the demonstration/validation phase of the advanced tactical fighter program. Lockheed is to build two YF-22A prototypes.

October 13, 1986
Teaming Agreement signed as Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics agree to compete as a team.

July 10, 1987
The original design of the YF-22 is found to be technically and competitively unacceptable by the team. Only three months later, a new design is selected.

July 13, 1987
The contractor team initiates new YF-22 configuration design and development.

July 17, 1987
Initial tests of the YF-22's avionics system are carried out on the team's Airborne Flying Laboratory (AFL), a company-owned Boeing 757.

October 1987
The new configuration of the YF-22 is selected.

1990

January 13, 1990
Final assembly of the first YF-22 prototype begins in California.

February 1990
Final assembly of the second YF-22 prototype begins.

June 8, 1990
Pratt & Whitney delivers its first flyable prototype YF119 engine to Lockheed.

July 17, 1990
Pratt & Whitney delivers its second flyable prototype engine to Lockheed.

August 1990
Prototype YF119 engine YF604-2 completes accelerated mission testing. Also, prototype YF119 engine YF605-1 completes flight clearance testing for the YF-22 at Arnold Engineering and Development Center in Tennessee.

August 28, 1990
The YF-22A is unveiled in ceremonies at Lockheed Plant 10 in Palmdale. This first Prototype Air Vehicle (PAV-1) is powered by two General Electric YF120-GE-100 turbofan engines.

September 29, 1990
First flight of prototype. Dave Ferguson was the pilot.

October 25, 1990
Maj. Mark Shackelford becomes the first Air Force pilot to fly the YF-22 prototype. This flight also marks the first time the YF-22 is flown at supersonic speeds.

October 26, 1990
The first aerial refueling of the YF-22 takes place. The tanker is a Boeing KC-135.

October 29, 1990
Pratt & Whitney delivers its third flyable prototype YF119 engine (which is used as a spare) to Lockheed.

October 30, 1990
Lockheed test pilot Tom Morgenfeld makes first flight of the number-two YF-22 prototype, flying from Palmdale to Edwards. Two P&W YF119-PW-100 turbofan engines powered this aircraft (PAV-2).

November 3, 1990
The YF-22's ability to supercruise, or fly at supersonic speeds without afterburners, is demonstrated for the first time. (Test carried out with PAV-1).

November 15, 1990
The General Electric-powered YF-22's thrust vectoring capability is demonstrated for the first time.

November 23, 1990
The Pratt & Whitney-powered YF-22 (PAV-2) demonstrates its supercruise capability for the first time.

November 28, 1990
General Dynamics test pilot Jon Beesley (flying PAV-2) fires an unarmed AIM-9 Sidewinder heat-seeking air-to-air missile over the range at the Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, California. This is the first live missile firing in the entire ATF program.


December 1, 1990
The Pratt & Whitney-powered YF-22's thrust vectoring capability is demonstrated for the first time.

December 10, 1990
Testing of the YF-22's ability to reach high angles of attack (or high alpha) attitudes begins. (All high angle of attack tests are conducted with PAV-1).

December 11, 1990
The YF-22s are flown in formation for the first time.

December 17, 1990
High angle of attack (high alpha) testing is completed. The YF-22 attains an unprecedented 60-degree angle of attack attitude and remains in full control.

December 20, 1990
Lockheed test pilot Tom Morgenfeld (flying PAV-2) fires an unarmed AIM-120A radar-guided Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) over the Pacific Missile Test Range at Point Mugu, Calif.

December 28, 1990
The YF-22's maximum mach number (Mach 2+) is achieved. During the dem/val flight test program, PAV-1 was flown 43 times for 52.8 hours and PAV-2 was flown 31 times for 38.8 hours. In total, the two YF-22s were flown a total of 74 times, accumulating 91.6 hours.

December 31, 1990
Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics team submits its proposal, the F-22 to the Air Force.

1991

January 3, 1991
The Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics team makes its oral summary presentation to the Air Force.

January 1991
F-22 program begins to relocate to Marietta from California. Also, the Gulf War begins and the F-15 Eagle quickly establishes American air superiority.

April 22, 1991
Air Force Secretary Dr. Donald Rice announces that declining defense budgets will reduce the number of Advanced Tactical Fighters (ATF).

April 23, 1991
Lockheed team and the F-22 win the ATF contract. For the engines, Pratt & Whitney's F119 engine is the winner.

June 1991
The number-one YF-22 prototype is flown aboard a Lockheed C-5 to Andrews AFB, Md., to participate in the Air Force's "Stealth Week," an informational exhibit for Congress and the media. The YF-22 is displayed with a Lockheed F-117 stealth fighter and a B-2 bomber.

June 23, 1991
The number-one YF-22 is flown to Marietta aboard a C-5 aircraft. This YF-22, which will not be flown again; will be used primarily as an engineering mockup.

August 2, 1991
Air Force awards Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics $9.55 billion engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) contract. Aircraft in the contract are 11 flyable F-22s (nine single- seat and two tandem-seat F-22Bs) and two test beds.

September 1991
The number-two YF-22 prototype is trucked from Edwards AFB, Calif., to Palmdale, Calif., for a planned layup and the installation of test equipment. It is trucked back to Edwards in October.

October 30, 1991
Flight testing of PAV-2 resumes at the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, Calif., as Lockheed pilot Tom Morgenfeld makes a 1.6 hour sortie.

November 13, 1991
Ground is broken for L-22 building, new home of the F-22 program.

December 16, 1991
External design of F-22 is frozen during the Air Vehicle Requirements/Design Review Update.

1992

January 10, 1992
With 53.0 hours total flight time accumulated during dem/val and this post-contract award flight test phase, the Pratt & Whitney-powered YF-22 prototype now surpasses the number of hours flown by PAV-1 (52.8) during dem/val.

January 21, 1992
With 44 flights completed during the two flight test phases, the number of sorties flown in PAV-2 now surpasses the total flown in PAV-1 (43) during dem/val.

April 7, 1992
With 40.3 hours flown, PAV-2 has now been flown for more hours in this post-contract award flight test phase than it was during dem/val (38.8).

April 11, 1992
Air Force Lt. Col. Jay Jabour makes the 32d test sortie in PAV-2 since the resumption of flight test in October 1991. The second YF-22 has now been flown more times during the second test phase than it was during dem/val.

April 25, 1992
The prototype pitches forward and back 40 feet above the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, lands without gear down, slides 8,000 feet, and partially burns. The pilot, who was determined to have accidentally caused the oscillations, was not seriously hurt.


June 4, 1992
The F-22's design review update (DRU) is completed.

June 30, 1992
Critical Design Reviews (CDRs) are held for all F119 EMD test engine components. These thorough reviews of the engine mark completion of the detailed design phase of the program and insure the F119 is ready to proceed into fabrication and assembly.

October 22, 1992
The Air Force releases its investigative report on the YF-22 accident.

December 17, 1992
The first F119 EMD engine goes to test.

1993

January 1993
As a result of fiscal year 1993 funding shortfall, due to cost increases and congressional budget cuts, the program is rephased and slowed down. Rephasing also reduces the number of EMD airplanes to nine.

March 1, 1993
Lockheed completes the buyout of the Fort Worth, Texas, division of General Dynamics, one of the three main partners in the F-22 program. The $1.5 billion deal boosts Lockheed's majority share from 35 percent to 67.5 percent, with Boeing holding the rest of the contract.

April 26, 1993
Occupancy of L-22 Building begins. This four-story, 200,000 square feet facility is home to more than 900 people working on the F-22 program. The building contains a 251-person conference center.

April 30, 1993
Air Vehicle Preliminary Design Review (PDR) is completed. PDR completes the third and final phase of preliminary design work on the F-22. Final development phase, detailed design, now begins. This was also the first major event held in the new L-22 Building.

December 8, 1993
The first part of the first flyable F-22 is made.

1994

February 10, 1994
Air Force reduces the number of production F-22s to be procured from 648 to 422 as a result of downsizing of the military.

March 4, 1994
It is announced that the F-22 Air Force/industry design team has identified some shortfalls in the aircraft's radar cross section (RCS) signature. The shortfalls, which were identified through a new computer modeling technique, are mitigated by late spring though an intensive effort. The fixes involve reducing the number of drain holes on the bottom of the aircraft and combining access panels.

October 6, 1994
Charles Wilkey, a milling machine operator, begins fabrication of the first part LASC is building for the first flyable F-22. The aluminum part is an engine inlet dust frame segment.

November 1994
Acquisition of F119 flight test engine long-lead time hardware is initiated.

December 9, 1994
Secretary of Defense William Perry announces $8 billion in budget changes to seven DoD modernization programs. These include a 10 percent reduction in the FY 96 research and development funding for the F-22. This cut forces a third rephase of the program.


December 1994
Lockheed Fort Worth Company begins fabrication of the first graphite composite parts for the first mid fuselage of the first flyable F-22. This initial composite parts fabrication follows an extensive risk reduction program that began early in the EMD phase.

1995

February 24, 1995
The formal portion of the F-22 air vehicle Critical Design Review (CDR) is completed. A very small number of items remain open after this review, and these items are closed as scheduled by June. This thorough review of the F-22 air vehicle marks completion of the detailed design phase of the program and insures that the F-22 is ready to proceed into fabrication and assembly.

March 15, 1995
Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta complete a "merger of equals". New entity is named Lockheed Martin Corporation.

April 20, 1995
Air Force awards the Lockheed-Boeing team a $9.5 million, 24-month study contract to explore derivatives of the F-22 aircraft. P&W is awarded a separate $500,000 contract to explore improved F119 performance. The Air Force later curtails this study.

June 27, 1995
Assembly of the first flyable F-22 begins in Fort Worth.

Summer
Wind tunnel testing of the F-22's configuration is completed. Twenty-three models were tested in 14 facilities in the U.S. and one in Germany during the 16,930 hour wind tunnel program that began in 1991.

July 1995
Pratt & Whitney's redesigned F119 turbine demonstrates improved fuel efficiency and elimination of turbine blade vibratory stress.

October 4, 1995
Assembly of the first flyable F-22 begins at Boeing as workers load parts for the aft fuselage into an assembly fixture.

November 2, 1995
Assembly of the first flyable F-22 begins in Marietta as workers load parts for the nose landing ear wheel well into an assembly fixture.

1996

January 17, 1996
Boeing begins assembly of the first shipset of wings for the first flyable F-22.

February 1996
Tests of the F-22's flight control laws begin in the Variable Stability In-flight Simulator Aircraft (VISTA), a highly modified, one-of-a-kind F-16D that, through a sophisticated control system, can emulate the flight characteristics of another airplane while in flight. These tests, which take place over upstate New York, are done in two sessions and are completed in May.

May 6, 1996
Pratt & Whitney begins assembly of the first flight test F119 engine at its Middletown, CN, facilities.

July 9, 1996
Pratt & Whitney begins assembly of the first flight test F119 engine.

July 10, 1996
Air Force defers the requirement for design and development of the two seat F-22B. All (nine) of the EMD F-22s are now single seat models.

August 29, 1996
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems in Fort Worth holds a ceremony to commemorate completion of the mid fuselage for the first flyable F-22.

September 6, 1996
The mid fuselage for the first flyable F-22 (Ship 1) arrives in Marietta after a four-day truck trip from Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems in Fort Worth, Tex. Forward-to-mid fuselage mate operations then begin.

September 24, 1996
Pratt & Whitney announces that the first flight test F119-PW-100 engine has been delivered to the Air Force. It will first taken to Arnold AFB, Tenn., for testing and then it will be delivered to Lockheed Martin in Marietta, Ga.

October 1, 1996
Northrop Grumman (formerly Westinghouse) announces that the first developmental AN/APG-77, the electronically steered, active element, phased-array radar to be used in the F-22, begins system level integration and test.

October 8, 1996
First two flight test F119 engines are delivered to Marietta via truck.

October 16, 1996
Aft fuselage for the first flyable F-22 arrives in Marietta and mate operations begin. The aft fuselage was flown from Seattle on board a C-5 aircraft.

October 27, 1996
The completed fuselage of the first F-22, 4001, is lifted from the body mate tool to the wing mate tool.

November 9, 1996
The wings for 4001 arrive in Marietta and mate operations are completed two days later.

November 1996
Building L-64, Coatings/Finishes Building is completed. Also known as the "RCS" Building.

December 1996
Electrical power is applied to the F-22 for the first time.

1997

January 1997
The first F119 engine is fit checked into the 4001.

January 21, 1997
Left vertical stabilator is installed in 4001.

February 1997
Building B-22, engine noise attenuation facility (Hush House), is completed.

February 6, 1997
Right vertical stabilator is installed in 4001

February 17, 1997
F119 engine endurance testing is completed.

March 6, 1997
4001, nearly complete, is towed from final assembly area in B-1 Building to newly constructed Hush House.

March 31, 1997
F119-PW-100 engine is granted Initial Flight Release.

April 9, 1997
Aircraft 4001 is publicly unveiled in rollout ceremonies at Marietta. During the ceremony, the fighter is christened with its official nickname -- Raptor.

August 7, 1997
Weight Off Wheels (WOW) test completed.

August 16, 1997
Low speed taxi tests conducted.

August 25, 1997
Low speed (up to 60 knots) taxi tests accomplished.

September 3, 1997
Successful engine run completed.

September 4, 1997
Additional engine run to gather additional data points.

September 5, 1997
High speed taxi tests completed; after taxi, engines were inspected and found to be damage free.

September 7, 1997
Chief Test Pilot Paul Metz made the first flight of an EMD F-22 from Marietta, Ga.

September 14, 1997
Second flight of 4001, piloted by Jon Beesley, F-22 test pilot from LMTAS. Primary objective was to gather data relative to the Environmental Control System (ECS) primary heat exchanger inlet performance. Shortly after takeoff, power to the data acquisition system was lost; remainder of the flight was devoted to familiarization with the aircraft handling qualities. Total flight time was 35 minutes.

September 16, 1997
Planned third flight cancelled due to failure of a hydraulic isolation valve, which would have precluded raising the landing gear during flight. Team and Air Force decided to stop this phase of flight test and prepare the airplane for transporting to Edwards for remainder of flight test.

November 7-13,1997
Gold Team led by General Al Slay reviews the F-22 Affordability Analysis - 1997/1998.

November 11, 1997
"Popular Science" magazine designated the F-22 as one of the "100 Best of What's New" for 1997. Awards are made annually to what the magazine considers top technology development programs. YF-22 program won a similar award in 1991.

November 13, 1997
Independent Cost Evaluation (ICE) team of corporate experts met in Marietta to provide the program and the corporation an independent assessment of costs associated with production.

December 4, 1997
Special team from F-22 Combined Test Force convened in Marietta develop plan and schedule for airlift of Aircraft 4001 to Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) and restoration for subsequent flights at EAFB.

December 16, 1997
Affordability Analysis --1997/1998 (AA97/98) presented to Mrs. Darleen Druyun, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition and Management.

December 19, 1997
AA97/98 presented to Air Force Chief of Staff. The analysis comprised production estimates for Lots 1 and 2, a target price curve for Lots 3-5 and the action plan to meet Air Force funding profile. Contractor CEOs and Air Force Chief of Staff agreed to accept a firm fixed price for Production Lots 1 and 2 for the budgeted amounts.

1998

January 5, 1998
Air Force issued Request for Proposal for Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) Lots 1 and 2 and LRIP Program Support. Response due March 16.

January 21, 1998
Government Accounting Office met in L-22 Conference Center for on-site review of Air Force Plant 6. Review is in response to the Authorization Bill requirement for annual GAO report (by March 15 each year) on F-22 program status.

January 23, 1998
Wings removed from 4001 this week and being prepared for shipment in wing crates salvaged from Boeings 4002 shipment to LMAS. 4001 is scheduled to be transported via C-5 to EAFB to begin preparation for EMD flight test.

February 4, 1998
Air Force C-5 arrived in Marietta to pick up Ship Serial 4001 for transport to Edwards Air Force Base

February 5, 1998
The C-5 with the F-22 on board departed Marietta just prior to noon today, 11 days ahead of scheduled February 16 departure.

February 25, 1998
The Honorable F. Whitten Peters, Acting Secretary of the Air Force, visited LMAS. Flew Concept Demonstrator.

March 16, 1998
F-22 Team delivered proposal volumes for Lots 1 and 2 and Program Support to System Program Office in Dayton, as planned. Cost volumes are scheduled for August delivery.

March 30, 1998
The 14-volume Affordability Analysis 1997/1998 was submitted to the SPO, one day ahead of scheduled submittal date.

March 31, 1998
In a formal ceremony, the YF-22 prototype aircraft was placed on public display at the Dayton Air Force Museum. F-22 SPO Director Brigadier General Mike Mushala signed over the aircraft documents to the museum.

April 6, 1998
LM Aeronautical Sector President Micky Blackwell and Tom Burbage met with Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Mrs. Darleen Druyun to discuss the Production Target Price Curve (TPC). They reached agreement on a revised TPC satisfactory to Lockheed Martin and the Air Force.

April 17, 1998
Aircraft 4002 moved to L-10 Building at Flight Line.

April 22, 1998
Auxiliary power unit runs began at Edwards on reassembled aircraft 4001.

May 12, 1998
Test Team at Edwards completed 30 and 60-knot taxi tests.

May 15, 1998
High-speed taxi testing completed on 4001at EAFB.

May 17, 1998
Lt. Colonel Steve Rainey piloted Raptor 01 (Ship 4001) in 1.2 hour flight (flight Number 3), marking beginning of EMD formal flight test. Test objectives were flying qualities envelope expansion, speed brake handling qualities, and formation flying qualities. All test points were flown precisely as briefed and the flight was a successful test mission.

May 20, 1998
Initial engine runs successfully conducted on 4002.

May 29, 1998
Flight Number 4 of aircraft 4001 at Edwards, 1.0 hours with Paul Metz in the cockpit.

June 1, 1998
Major General Claude M. Bolton, Jr., replaced Lt. General Bob Raggio as Program Executive Officer -- Fighters and Bombers.

June 19, 1998
Mrs. Darleen Druyun at Marietta for F-22 program review.

June 29, 1998
Aircraft 4002 initial flight at Marietta, scheduled 7-9-98, ten days early. Paul Metz was the pilot.

July 2, 1998
Government signed contract for two Production Readiness Test Vehicles (PRTV) and a separate contract for related program support. Production contract includes options for PRTV full award in December 1998, Advance Procurement for six Lot 1 Production aircraft in December 1998, and Lot 1 full award of Production aircraft in December 1999. The Program Support Contract includes options for program support to correspond with full award on PRTV and Lot 1.

July 30, 1998
Aircraft 4001 in-flight refueling at 20,000 feet, 300 knots (pilot ñ Lt. Col. Steve Rainey).

August 4, 1998
Aircraft 4001 completed aerial refueling qualification at 30,000 ft, 300 KCAS. Pilot -- Jon Beesley.

August 12, 1998
Satellite media tour at Marietta. Media reporters across the United States call in via satellite and conduct live interviews with test pilots Chick Killberg (Boeing), Jon Beesley (LMTAS) and Lt. Colonel Steve Rainey (USAF).

August 23, 1998
USAF pilot Lt. Colonel Steve Rainey flew 4002 in an aerial refueled endurance flight of 4.6 hours.

August 26, 1998
Lt. Colonel Steve Rainey piloted Aircraft 4002 in the 4.5-hour ferry flight to Edwards Air Force Base. The aircraft was accompanied by two KC-135 tankers and an F-15 and F-16 chase plane piloted by Paul Metz and Jon Beesley, respectively. As Raptor 02 neared EAFB, the Test Team sent 4001 on its scheduled test flight so both F-22s were aloft at the same time, the first time this event has occurred.

August 31, 1998
An era in the F-22 program ended today as Don Herring transitioned from 11 years of guiding the program to assume duties as LMAS Vice President of Engineering.

October 1, 1998
The "Don Herring IPT of the Quarter" award is established by adding Don Herring to the award title. The Airworthiness and Delivery Team led by Vinny Devino was winner of the first renamed honor.

October 3, 1998
Aircraft 4002 was on static display at the air show at Edwards Air Force Base. Reports indicate the airplane was the most popular exhibit at the show. This was the first time one of the Raptors has been on public display.

October 10, 1998
Lockheed Martin test pilot Jon Beesley broke the sound barrier in aircraft 4001 during a 2.8-hour flight that reached speed of 1.1 Mach. When the Raptor 4001 reached Mach speed it was flying in the skies over Edwards Air Force Base at an altitude of 29,000 feet at approximately 3:25 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time. Total flight time on this aircraft is 45.0 hours; supersonic time is approximately 20 minutes.

November 12, 1998
Avionics Software Manager (ASM) final Block 2 Critical Design Review (CDR) was held one week early.

November 23, 1998
The first Block 1 integrated production software was released to the Flying Test Bed (FTB) 2 weeks early.

November 23, 1998
Lockheed Martin met the congressionally-mandated 183 flight hour mark more than a month ahead of schedule and three days before a target date set my Air Force Chief of Staff General Michael Ryan.

December 28, 1998
The Air Force exercised a firm fixed price contract option with Lockheed Martin totaling approximately $503 million for two F-22 production representative test vehicle (PRTV) aircraft and associated program support for calendar year 1999. The PRTVV deliveries are scheduled to commence in November 2001 and continue through January 2002.

December 30, 1998
Lockheed Martin received a firm fixed price contract option for the advance procurement of six Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) aircraft totaling approximately $189 million.


1999

January 12, 1999
A new MiG fighter jet, conceived as a Russian response to the U.S. combat aircraft was unveiled. The Multi-Functional Fighter, known as "Project 1.42" in the West, is proclaimed by the MAPO-MiG company that produces it, to be able to outperform the F-22 Raptor.

 

 

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